Slater, J.A., and Baranowski, R.M. 1994. The occurrence of Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Costa) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in the West Indies and new Lygaeidae records for the Turks and Caicos islands of Providenciales and north Caicos. The Florida Entomologist 77(4): pp. 495-497.
In the early 1990's Oxycarenus hyalinipennis, the cotton seed bug, was discovered inhabiting the West Indies, more specifically North Caicos and the Bahamas. The seed bug is common and widespread throughout the Old World tropics, where it is a pest of species in the families Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae, and often causes staining of cotton (Gossypium). As early as 1917, O. hyalinipennis has been present in the Western Hemisphere, when it was found in Brazil and later, Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia. This is the first report of the cotton seed bug from the West Indies.