Warning: The following pest reports have not yet been confirmed with the appropriate National Plant Protection Organization. They are provided solely as an early warning to NAPPO countries, and all National and Regional Plant Protection Organizations should use this information with caution.

Subject: Citrus canker confirmed in Bolivia
Publicada: December 05, 2001
Source: European Plant Protection Organization Reporting Service
The first confirmed report of citrus canker, caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri was reported in Bolivia during 1999-2000, where it has been suspected to occur for several years. Citrus canker is an easily spread, devastating disease of cultivated Rutaceae worldwide, preferring regions where there is a simultaneous increase in temperature and rainfall. The disease is found in southern Asia, Japan, the Middle East, Africa, and South America. The long-range dispersal of citrus canker is primarily through movement of infected plant materials, and natural spread is advanced through vectors such as the Asian citrus leaf miner, introduced to Florida in the early 1990's. See http://www.biotech.ufl.edu/~pcfcl/canker.htm for more information.