Due to the changing status of grapevine phytoplasmas in France, in 2006 the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) implemented grapevine phytoplasma surveys in support of stronger import restrictions to Canada. In 2007, the survey in Ontario revealed two imported grapevine plants infected with the phytoplasma causing Bois noir (Black wood) disease. The plants originated from an area of France where the disease is known to be endemic. They had been imported prior to implementation of mandatory hot water treatment for imports.
The known Bois noir insect vector Hyalesthes obsoletus has still not been recorded in North America and grapevine is considered by European researchers to be a dead-end host for the phytoplasma.
The infected plants in Ontario were removed in November 2007 and surveys around the site of the removed plants found no other infected or symptomatic plants.
Under IPPC Standards (e.g., ISPM No. 8), Bois noir is considered absent from Canada: pest eradicated. To confirm that the eradication has been successful, follow-up surveys will be carried out during successive growing seasons.